Given Indonesia's extraordinary diversity, it is easy to see what Indonesians have in common and what Indonesia as a nation is.
The history of the archipelago has seen many chapters, but there is no doubt that the years of colonial dominance brought exploitation. For the first time, the indigenous people of the archipelago began to develop a national consciousness among the Indonesians. Indonesia and India reached their highest levels of political, economic, social and cultural development.
Indonesians today are of Malay origin, like Malaysians and Filipinos, and descendants of migrants who arrived around 4000 BC. In the earliest recorded times, Malays were and are the language of the people living in the Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatera from the Malaysian peninsula. As a result, it became the lingua franca of the people who lived in the area, especially in coastal areas. Over the centuries, Malay was born on the islands of Indonesia and it became a widely used language - in Indonesia, but also in other parts of Southeast Asia.
Most Indonesians are of Malay and Polynesian descent, although the country's history has produced a number of other ethnic groups, including Malaysians, Filipinos and other indigenous peoples.
When the Hindu Majapahit Empire conquered Java in 1290, much of Indonesia was controlled and influenced by them, while retaining control over the islands of Kalimantan and Sumatra and parts of Borneo. Indian concepts and imitation empires in the archipelago, such as the Indian concept, were found on the island of Kalimantsan in Java and Sumatra in Bali. In 1270, after the collapse of the Roman Empire in Europe, and in 1280-1285, to maintain control over its territories in East Asia and the Middle East, it controlled much or all of what is now called Indonesia until the end of World War II.
In the 13th century, Islam arrived and prevailed in Indonesia's least affected areas, but Java and Sumatra became powerful sultanates, while other islands continued to follow Hindu, Buddhist, and animist traditions. Srivijaya ceased to exist in 1414 when Paramesuara, the last prince of the kingdom, converted to Islam and founded the Sultanate of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula. The eastern part of Lombok was converted to Islam before Islam invaded the island from the west, in what is now called Ujungpandang.
Melanesians already inhabited Indonesia, but were driven out of much of the archipelago by the Austronesians, who arrived in the late 16th century as part of Indonesia's first colonial wave.
The ancestors of most modern Indonesians came from Taiwan and arrived in the archipelago through the Strait of Malacca in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. This interaction led to people living in close proximity to each other and also to other ethnic groups. The historical link between trade and Islam is also visible in other parts of the world, such as the Middle East and North Africa.
During this time, the homonid appeared for the first time and the Javanese inhabited the part of the world that is now called Indonesia. This upright man lived in a time when Europe was on ice and most of Indonesia was partly Asia. Secondly, the whole area, which is now called Indonesia, was not conquered by the Dutch at the same time, but was then owned for 3-5 centuries. It was the time when homonid hominid appeared in Indonesia for the first time and Java man made his first appearances and inhabited the parts of the world that we call "Indonesia" today.
The Indonesian islands, including East Timor, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo, Papua, Java and the rest of Indonesia, became a territory known as the Dutch East India. While 90% of Indonesians are Muslims, the "East Timorese" are primarily Catholics and governed by the Portuguese, while the other half of their territory is under Dutch control. The Dutch colonies of East Timor are part of Southeast Asia and East Africa, while the rest of Southeast Asia, such as South America and Central Asia, is under Chinese control.
When Marco Polo visited North Sumatra at the end of the 13th century, the first "Islamic state" was already established. On the basis of the little evidence we have, Islam spread in the region in the 14th and 15th centuries and became dominant there. The dominant mix of Hinduism and animism was superimposed, leading to the hybrid religion that now prevails in much of Indonesia. Sarekat Islam is the official religion of East Timor, Sulawesi, Borneo, Papua and the rest of Southeast Asia. Later, in 1927, the Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI) was founded under Sukarno as its leader.
In July 1927, Soekarno, Sartono and others founded the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI), which adopted Bahasa Indonesia as its official language. Soetomo merged with Persatuan Bangsa Indonesia (Boedi Oetomos) to form Partai Indonesia Raya Parindra.
The publication of a standard grammar, Tata Bahasa, was another initiative, and the language was also borrowed from countless frequently used words. Austronesian, the core vocabulary of Indonesian, is permeated with many of the same words, such as babak, pangkal and kapit, as well as a number of other common words from other languages and dialects.